Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2022
|Significant Accounting Policies|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 4: Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries, all of which are controlled by the Company through majority voting control, and variable interest entities for which the Company is the primary beneficiary. As more fully described in Note 25 “Variable Interest Entities,” the Company is the primary beneficiary of the following physician practices (“Network”):
All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Variable Interest Entities
Management analyzes whether the Company has any financial interests in Variable Interest Entities (“VIE” or “VIEs”). This analysis includes a qualitative review based on an evaluation of the design of the entity, its organizational structure, including decision making ability and financial agreements, as well as a quantitative review. Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 810, Consolidation (“ASC 810”), requires a reporting entity to consolidate a VIE when that reporting entity has a variable interest that provides it with a controlling financial interest in the VIE. The entity which consolidates a VIE is referred to as the primary beneficiary of the VIE. See Note 25 “Variable Interest Entities”.
The Company presents its financial statements by segment in accordance with ASC Topic No. 280, Segment Reporting (“ASC 280”) to provide investors with transparency into how the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) manages the business. The Company determined that the CODM is its Chief Executive Officer. The Company’s CODM manages the operations on a consolidated basis to make decisions about overall corporate resource allocation and to assess overall corporate profitability based on consolidated revenues and adjusted Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization (“EBITDA”), as defined in Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. The Company has one reportable segment, which reflects how the CODM manages the Company.
Management’s Use of Estimates
Preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying footnotes, in conformity with U.S. GAAP, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that could affect amounts reported here. Management bases its estimates on the best information available at the time, its experiences and various other assumptions believed to be reasonable under the circumstances including estimates of the impact of COVID 19. See Note 23 “Commitments and Contingencies” for further discussion on the impact of COVID-19.
The areas where significant estimates are used in these accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include revenue recognition, the liability for unpaid claims, unit-based and share-based compensation, premium deficiency reserves (“PDR”), fair value and impairment recognition of long-lived assets (including intangibles and goodwill), fair value of acquired assets and liabilities in Business Combinations, fair value of liability classified instruments and judgments related to deferred income taxes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Earnings (Loss) per Share and Member Unit
Basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders in the Successor Periods is presented in conformity with the two-class method required for participating securities. Basic net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share attributable to common stockholders adjusts basic earnings per share for the potentially dilutive impact of Public Warrants, Private Placement Warrants, restricted shares and escrow shares. As the Company has reported losses for all periods presented, all potentially dilutive securities are antidilutive and accordingly, basic net loss per share equals diluted net loss per share.
The Company analyzed the calculation of net loss per member unit for the Predecessor Periods and determined that it resulted in values that would not be meaningful to the users of these condensed consolidated financial statements. Therefore, net loss per member unit information has not been presented for the Predecessor Periods.
Cash and Restricted Cash
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash deposits at banks. Accounts at each institution are insured up to $250,000 by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). At September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company maintained its cash in bank deposit accounts that, at times, may have exceeded FDIC insured limits. Management does not expect any losses to occur on such accounts.
At September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had unrestricted cash of $34,357,237 and $140,477,586, respectively, deposited at banking institutions which are subject to the FDIC insured limit.
Restricted Cash is that which is held for a specific purpose (such as payment of partner distributions and legal settlements) and is thus not available to the Company for immediate or general business use. Restricted Cash appears as a separate line item on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash and restricted cash reported on the condensed consolidated balance sheet at September 30, 2021, that sum to the total of these items reported in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.
Revenue Recognition and Revenue Sources
The Company categorizes revenue based on various factors such as the nature of contracts and order to billing arrangements as follows:
The following table depicts the health plans from which the Company has a concentration of revenue that is 10.0% or more:
The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). The core principle of ASC 606 is that an entity’s performance obligation is complete, and revenue is earned, upon the transfer of a promise to deliver services to customers commensurate with consideration to which it would expect to be received in exchange for the actual delivery of those services. The terms of the contract and all relevant facts and circumstances should be considered when applying this guidance. This includes application of a practical expedient (a “portfolio approach”) to contracts with similar characteristics and circumstances. Specific revenue streams are described in more detail below.
The Company contracts with health plans using an at-risk (shared savings) model. Under the at-risk model, the Company is responsible for the cost of all covered services provided to members assigned by the health plans to the Company in exchange for a fixed premium payment, which generally is a percentage of the payment based on the health plans’ premiums received from CMS. Through this capitation arrangement, the Company stands ready to provide assigned Medicare Advantage beneficiaries all their medical care via the Company’s directly employed and affiliated physician/specialist network.
The premiums health plans receive are determined via a competitive bidding process with CMS and are based on the costs of care in local markets and the average utilization of services by patients enrolled. Medicare pays capitation using a “risk adjustment model”, which compensates providers based on the health status (acuity) of each individual patient. Medicare Advantage plans with higher acuity patients receive higher premiums. Conversely, Medicare Advantage plans with lower acuity patients receive lesser premiums. Under the risk adjustment model, capitation is paid on an interim basis based on enrollee data submitted for the preceding year and is adjusted in subsequent periods after final data is compiled. The Company generally estimates transaction prices using the most likely methodology. Amounts are only included in the transaction price to the extent any significant uncertainty of reversal on cumulative revenue will not occur and is, furthermore, resolved. In certain contracts, PMPM fees also include adjustments for items such as performance incentives or penalties based on the achievement of certain clinical quality metrics as contracted with payors.
Capitated revenues are recognized based on an estimated PMPM transaction price to transfer the service for a distinct increment of the series (e.g. month) and is recognized net of projected acuity adjustments and performance incentives or penalties as management cannot reasonably estimate the ultimate PMPM payment of those contracts. The Company recognizes revenue in the month in which eligible members are entitled to receive healthcare benefits during the contract term. The capitation amount is subject to possible retroactive premium risk adjustments based on the member’s individual acuity. There were no premium risk adjustments recorded in 2021 or the first three quarters in 2022 as related to prior years. As the period between the time of service and time of payment is typically one year or less, management elected the practical expedient under ASC 606-10-32-18 and did not adjust for the effects of a significant financing component.
The Company’s contracts with health plans may include core functions and services for managing assigned patients’ medical care. The combination of those services is offered as one “single solution” (“bundle”). Capitation contracts have a single performance obligation that is a stand ready obligation to perform healthcare services to the population of enrolled members and constitutes a series for the provision of managed healthcare services for the term of the contract, which is deemed to be one month since the mix of patients-customers can change month over month. The Company does not offer nor price each individual function as a standalone a la carte service to health plans. However, the addition or exclusion of certain services may be negotiated and reflected in each health plan’s specific total percent of the premium (“POP”).
At September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had POP contracts in effect with 20 health plans (across five states) and 17 health plans (across four states), respectively.
Each month, in accordance with contractual obligations (for non-delegated health plans; e.g. – those for which the Company has not been delegated for claims processing), each plan funds a medical claims payment reserve equal to a defined percentage of premium attributable to members assigned to the Company. In turn, the Company administers and funds medical claims for contractually covered services, for assigned health plan members, from that health plan’s reserve. On a quarterly or monthly basis, health plans conduct a settlement of the reserve to determine any surplus or deficit amount. The reconciliation and distribution of the reserve occur within 120 days following the end of each quarter. An annual settlement reconciliation and distribution from all funds occurs withinmonths following each year-end.
At September 30, 2022, and December 31,2021, health plan receivables and health plan settlement payables, by health plan, by year, were as follows:
At September 30, 2022, and December 31, 2021, management has deemed the Company’s settlement receivables to be fully collectible from those health plans where the Company is not delegated for claims processing. Accordingly, a constraint on the variable consideration associated with settlement receivables is not necessary.
Other Patient Service Revenue – Clinical Fees and Insurance Revenue
Clinic fees and insurance revenues relate to net patient fees received from various payers and direct patients (“self-payers”) under contracts in which the Company’s sole performance obligation is to provide healthcare services through the operation of medical clinics. The Company recognizes clinic fees and insurance revenue in the period in which services are provided, on the date of service, under FFS payment arrangements, revenue is recognized on the date of service. The Company’s performance obligations are typically satisfied in the same day services are provided. All the Company’s contracts with its customers under these arrangements include a single performance obligation.
The Company’s contractual relationships with patients, in most cases, also involve third-party payers (Medicare, Medicaid, managed care health plans and commercial insurance companies, including plans offered through state-sponsored health insurance exchanges). Transaction prices for services provided are dependent upon specific rules in place with third party payers – specifically, Medicare/Medicaid and pre-negotiated rates with managed care health plans and commercial insurance companies. Contractual arrangements with third parties typically include payments at amounts which are less than standard charges. These charges generally have predetermined rates for diagnostic service codes or discounted FFS rates. Management perpetually reviews the Company’s contractual estimation processes to consider and incorporate updates to laws, regulations and frequent changes in the managed care system. Contractual terms are negotiated and updated accordingly upon renewal.
The Company’s revenue is based upon the estimated amounts management expects to receive from patients and third-party payers. Estimates of explicit price concessions under managed care and commercial insurance plans are tied to payment terms specified in related contractual agreements. Retroactively calculated explicit price concessions tied to reimbursement agreements with third-party payers are recognized on an estimated basis in the period related services are rendered and adjusted in future periods as final payments are received. Revenue related to uninsured patients, uninsured co-payments, and deductibles (for patients with healthcare coverage) may also be discounted. The Company records implicit price concessions (based on historical collection experience) related to uninsured accounts to recognize self-pay revenues at their most likely amounts to be collected.
The Company deems FFS revenue to be variable consideration and that its estimates of associated transaction prices will not result in a significant revenue reversal in the future.
Based on satisfaction of single performance obligations occurring on the dates of service, revenue is recognized as of the date services are provided. The Company, therefore, applies a portfolio approach to recognizing revenue from its FFS contracts.
Management has elected two of the available practical expedients provided for by ASC 606. First, the Company did not adjust the transaction price for any financing components as those were deemed to be insignificant. Additionally, the Company expensed all incremental customer contract acquisition costs as incurred as such costs are not material and would be amortized over a period less than one year.
Other Patient Service Revenue – Shared Risk Revenue
P3 LLC (via one of its wholly owned subsidiaries – P3 Health Partners ACO, LLC “AzCC”) receives 30% of the shared risk savings from parties with whom it contracts under four separate arrangements. These arrangements are driven solely by medical cost containment year-over-year (“YoY”) expense reductions. This key performance indicator (“KPI”) is measured by the aggregate change in per member per year (“PMPY”) medical costs. If the sequential YoY PMPY aggregate change yields a reduction, the Company receives 30% of the associated total cost savings for that year. Conversely, if the sequential YoY PMPY aggregate change yields an increase in medical costs, no monies are due the Company that year. This KPI is compiled and reviewed on a calendar year basis. The Company recognizes shared risk revenue only upon the receipt of cash. Therefore, the likelihood of any significant revenue reversal in the future is non-existent.
Other Patient Service Revenue – Care Coordination Fees and Management Fees
The Company’s delegated health plans may also pay a Care Coordination Fee (“CCF”) or Management Fee to the Company. CCFs and Management Fees are intended to fund the costs of delegated services provided to certain health plans. CCFs are specifically identified and separated in each monthly capitation payment the Company receives from these parties. None of the Company’s other health plans bifurcate CCFs nor are any of them contractually required to do so.
The Company uses a portfolio approach to account for CCFs and Management Fees. Based on similarities of the terms of the care coordination and administrative services, management believes that revenue recognized by utilizing the portfolio approach approximates that which it would have realized if an individual contract approach were applied.
Patient Fees Receivable
Substantially, all client fees and insurance receivables are due under FFS contracts with third party payors, such as commercial insurance companies (“Commercial”), government-sponsored healthcare programs (“Medicare/Medicaid”) or directly from patients (“Self-Pay”). Management continuously monitors activities from payors (including patients) and records an estimated price concession based on specific contracts and actual historical collection patterns. Patient fees receivable, where a third-party payor is responsible for the amount due, are carried at amounts determined by the original charges for services provided less implicit and explicit price concessions. Price concessions represent amounts made for contractual adjustments (discounts). Patient fees receivable is included in Clinic Fees and Insurance Receivables in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets and are recorded net of contractual allowances.
Patient fees receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount, net of any expected contractual adjustments and implicit price concessions, and do not bear interest. The Company has agreements with third-party payors that provide for payments at amounts different from the established rates. Payment arrangements include prospectively determined rates per discharge, reimbursed costs, discounted charges, and per diem payments. Patient service revenues are reported at the estimated net realizable amounts from patients, third-party payors, and others for services rendered. Contractual adjustments arising under reimbursement arrangements with third- party payors are accrued on an estimated basis in the period the related services are rendered and are adjusted in future periods as final settlements are determined. Implicit price concessions are taken based on historical collection experience and reflect the estimated amounts the Company expects to collect.
In accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other, management tests goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level. The Company has one reporting unit for goodwill impairment testing purposes. Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis during the fourth quarter, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable (a “triggering event”). On the occurrence of a triggering event, an entity has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether a quantitative impairment test is necessary. If it is more likely than not that goodwill is impaired, the fair value of the reporting unit (the Company) is compared with its carrying value. An impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, provided, the loss recognized cannot exceed the total amount of goodwill. No goodwill impairment charges were recorded in the first quarter or third quarter of 2022, respectively. Based on management’s analysis, a goodwill impairment charge of $851.5 million was recorded in the second quarter of 2022. See Note 11 “Goodwill.”
Intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. In determining the estimated useful lives of definite-lived intangibles, the Company considers the nature, competitive position, life cycle position and historical and expected future operating cash flows of each acquired asset, as well as its commitment to support these assets through continued investment and legal infringement protection.
The Company reviews intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the related carrying amounts may not be recoverable. Determining whether an impairment loss occurred requires comparing the carrying amount to the sum of undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. Such events and circumstances include the occurrence of an adverse change in the market involving the business employing the assets or a situation in which it is more likely than not that the Company will dispose of such assets. If the comparison indicates that there is impairment, the impairment loss to be recognized as a non-cash charge to earnings is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value. The impaired asset is written down to its fair value or, if fair value is not readily determinable, to an estimated fair value based on discounted expected future cash flows.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company accounts for fair value measurements in accordance with ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements (“ASC 820”). The Company uses valuation approaches that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs to the extent possible. The Company determines fair value based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability in the principal or most advantageous market. When considering market participant assumptions in fair value measurements, the following fair value hierarchy distinguishes between observable and unobservable inputs, which are categorized in one of the following levels (see Note 8 “Fair Value Measurements and Hierarchy” for further discussion):
Level 1 inputs: Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities accessible to the reporting entity at the measurement date.
Level 2 inputs: Other than quoted prices included in Level 1 inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3 inputs: Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability used to measure fair value to the extent that observable inputs are not available, thereby allowing for situations in which there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at measurement date.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef